ALTERNATIVAS A LA REPETICIÓN Y BIBLIOGRAFÍA SOBRE EL TEMA


Hay muchísimos estudios que dejan bien claros los efectos perversos de la repetición de curso.
Este estudio de la Universidad de Wisconsin dice que la repetición es, en el mejor de los casos, una intervención insuficiente para mejorar el rendimento del alumnado y, en el peor de los casos, la repetición impide el éxito académico del alumnado y debe ser sustancialmente modificado por programas de efectividad demostrada.
http://www.irp.wisc.edu/publications/dps/pdfs/dp116798.pdf

“Our findings and those of many other studies indicate that grade retention is at best an insufficient intervention strategy for promoting student achievement, at least for many central-city minority children. At worst, grade retention impedes children’s academic success and should be substantially modified or replaced by programs and policies with demonstrated effectiveness.”

Este otro estudio europeo, deja claro que las cohortes en régimen de no-repetición rendían más que la cohorte expuesta a repetición. Dados los altos costes de la repetición, dicen, parece que no hay una buena base para justificar las políticas de repetición.
Grade retention and school performance

“we find that the cohorts exposed to the “no repetition regime” performed better on average than the cohort exposed to the “repetition regime”. Given the large costs of grade repetition (in terms of opportunity costs for the pupils, but also in terms of teaching resources), it seems that there are no good grounds for justifying grade retention policies.”

LAS ALTERNATIVAS

Brophy dice en su trabajo “Grade repetition”: “Automatic promotion is clearly preferable to school-imposed grade repetition, although it needs to be supplemented with initiatives designed to help low achievers.”
Es decir, que la PROMOCIÓN AUTOMÁTICA es cláramente preferible a la repetición impuesta por la escuela, si bien es necesario complementarla con iniciativas para ayudar al alumnado de bajo rendimiento.

http://www.iaoed.org/files/Brophy_web_151206.pdf


Jimerson et al. proponen las siguientes alternativas:

-Parent involvement through frequent contact with teachers, supervision of
homework, and continual communica-
tion about school activities…
• Age-appropriate and culturally sensitive instructional strategies to accelerate progress in the classroom. Tutoring programs and individual enrichment strategies may be valuable tools in advancing the skills of students.
• Systematic assessment strategies, such as continual progress monitoring and formative evaluation, that enable ongoing modification of instructional efforts. Effective programs frequently assess student progress and adapt instructional strategies to the results of these assessments.
• Reading programs that provide developmentally appropriate, intensive, and
direct instruction strategies to promote the reading skills of low-performing students with reading problems.
• School-based mental health programs that promote the social and emotional adjustment of children.
• Student support teams with appropri-ate professionals to assess and identify specific learning or behavior problems, design interventions to address those problems, and evaluate the efficacy of those interventions.
• Behavior management and cognitive-behavior modification strategies to reduce classroom behavior problems.
• Extended year, extended day, and summer school programs that facilitate the development of academic skills.
• T utoring and mentoring programs with peer, cross-age, or adult tutors that promote specific academic or social skills.
• Comprehensive schoolwide programs

Aldridge y Goldman en cambio, enfatizan la pronta detección del alumnado en riesgo para impletementar cuanto antes medidas correctoras.
“be proactive and attempt to prevent failure, and identify at-risk children as soon as possible and immediately take action to implement best practices.”


Y he aquí las alternativas para equipos directivos de Nancy Protheroe:
http://www.naesp.org/resources/2/Principal/2007/J-Fp30.pdf

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